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「清代糧價資料庫」簡介

王業鍵院士與「清代糧價資料庫」

  王業鍵院士編的「清代糧價資料庫」,為一數據形式的價格資料庫,其價格資料是指清代(1644-1911)自乾隆元年(1736)年開始,各省按月向皇帝奏報省屬各府及直隸州廳的主要糧食價格。這些奏報的糧價原始文件稱為「糧價清單」,分別庋藏於臺北的國立故宮博物院、北京的第一歷史檔案館。清單的書寫有一定的格式,報告價格時皆以府為單位,每府列出該府主要糧食的最高和最低價格區間,並以統一的衡量(倉石)和計值(銀兩)單位表示。

  王業鍵院士自1970年代即已展開糧價清單的蒐集及糧價資料庫的建置工程,先後在美國(Kent State University)、臺灣(中央研究院)及北京(中國社會科學院經濟研究所)主持進行,所費時間超過三十年。王院士在美任教期間,曾獲Social Science Research Council(Dwight H. Perkins協助), American Council of Learned Societies, Fulbright-Hays Program, National Academy of Sciences, Wang Institute for Chinese Studies, Research of Kent State University等機構的資助,將藏於臺北國立故宮博物院所有的糧價清單予以蒐集完全及建檔,也包含了部分北京第一歷史檔案館庋藏的糧價清單。這時期蒐集及建檔的工作,獲得國立故宮博物院莊吉發教授和中央研究院經濟研究所黃國樞教授的頂力協助,而得順利進行。所蒐集的糧價資料,以江蘇、福建、浙江三省最為完整。1994年王院士自美回臺以後,利用北京第一歷史檔案館發行的《宮中糧價單》327卷微卷(當時該館稱已將館內絕大部分的糧價清單整理發行),結合前一時期已建檔的所有國立故宮博物院和一部分第一歷史檔案館糧價資料,統合以「清代糧價資料庫」的建置工程為核心,附隨各種與糧價相關的統計及歷史研究,先後經國科會補助專題研究計畫「清代全國各省之糧價統計分析」(1995年8月至1996年7月)、本院補助主題研究計畫「清代糧價的統計分析與歷史考察」(1996年至2000年)、本院經濟研究所補助(2001年1月至6月),以及本院近代史研究所的支援(2008年3月至12月),終將資料庫建庫建置完成。

  「清代糧價資料庫」的建置是經濟史上重要的基礎工程,這批價格資料可說是二十世紀以前中國歷史上最為豐富可靠且時間連續最長的經濟數據資料,具有高度的學術研究價值。在農業社會中,糧價為最重要的經濟指標之一,因為糧食消費往往佔家庭消費總支出的一半以上,糧價變動因而影響到社會經濟中各個部門的榮枯,以及社會上大多數人的福利。而清代存在全國性的糧價陳報制度,例行地蒐集市場的糧價資訊,對工業化以前的國家而言,實為獨一無二的機制,糧價清單即是這個制度運作下保留至今的重要產物。這批數據資料自王院士1970年代後期開始後,美國學界的Lillian M. Li, Robert B. Marks, Peter C. Perdue, James Z. Lee, R. Bin Wong、大陸的陳春聲等學者,都分別各自蒐集不同省區的糧價清單,並有論著發表。但是學者奔波蒐集,費時費力,如今「清代糧價資料庫」的完成,可省去耗時的蒐集工作,學術研究更可事半功倍、更上層樓。

  

Introduction to Qing Dynasty Grain Prices Database

Academician Wang Yeh-chien (王業鍵) and Qing Dynasty Grain Prices Database

  Qing Dynasty Grain Prices Database is a digital Prices Database, edited by Academician Wang Yeh-chien (王業鍵). The dataset contains the whole Qing Dynasty, generally collects from the first year of Qianlong Emperor, the year 1736, and to 1911.

  Each provincial government presented a memorial of major grain prices, including local governments and country subdivisions to an emperor by month.

  Original grain prices memorials were called 'Grain Prices Tradelists', stored in National Palace Museum of Taipei and in First Historical Archives of China of Beijing. Tradelists were formulated by local governments. Each local government listed the highest price and the lowest price of the major grains, with the same measure (picul) and value (silver tael). Academician Wang Yeh-chien (王業鍵), starting from the year 1970, collected the grain prices tradelists and built up the Grain Prices Database, in the USA (Kent State University), in Taiwan (Academia Sinica) and in Beijing (Institute of Economic Chinese Academy of Social Sciences). It took Academician Wang over thirty years to conduct the project. Academician Wang (王業鍵) was sponsored by Social Science Research Council (Dwight H. Perkins assisted), American Council of Learned Societies, Fulbright-Hays Program, National Academy of Sciences, Wang Institute for Chinese Studies, Research of Kent State University, while teaching in the USA. With that, he gathered all of the materials from National Palace Museum of Taipei completely and then created a file, including part of tradelists from First Historical Archives of China of Beijing. Special thanks to professor Chuang Chi-fa (莊吉發) of National Palace Museum and professor Huang Guo-shu (黃國樞) of Institute of Economics, Academia Sinica, the project was running successfully with two professors contributions. Jiangsu province, Fujian province and Zhejiang province have the most comprehensive Grain Prices data. Back to Taiwan in 1994, Academician Wang (王業鍵) set Qing Dynasty Grain Prices Database as a core benchmark to develop associated statistical and historical researches. The database was based on 327 microfilms 'Palace Grain Price Tradelist' of First Historical Archives of China of Beijing (the Archives at that time indicated most of grain price tradelists have already well-arranged and published.), along with the filed Grain Prices data of National Palace Museum and, with a partial data of First Historical Archives of China. The database project was supported by Academia Sinica Thematic Research Project 'A Statistical Analysis and Historical Survey of Qing Dynasty Grain Price' (1995.Aug-1996.Jul), Institute of Economics of Academia Sinica (2001.Jan-Jun) and Institute of Modern History of Academia Sinica (2008.Mar-Dec).The infrastructure of Qing Dynasty Grain Prices Database is by far the most important milestone of economic history. This prices dataset, before the 20th century, deserves highly academic research values, which contains the richest, most reliable and most scalable economic materials. In an agricultural society, grain price is one of the important economic indexes, as the grain consumption occupies over the half of the total household expenditure generally. The Volatility of grain price then makes the market prosperous or detrimental, as well as affects the benefit of the majority. Qing Dynasty sets up the nationwide grain price system, to collect grain price on the market routinely. For non-industrialized country, the reporting mechanism was unique and the grain price tradelists were well preserved to date. Following the late 1970s of Academician Wang (王業鍵), the dataset was respectively gathered from various provinces and made articles published by American scholars Lillian M. Li, Robert B. Marks, Peter C. Perdue, James Z. Lee, R. Bin Wong and China scholar Chen chun-sheng (陳春聲). The accomplish of Qing Dynasty Grain Prices Database saves the time consuming efforts, enables scholars to do an academic research more efficient.

  

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