起訖年月From and To

    全時期(1736-1911)Period (1736-1911) 中西曆轉換    
     
Western-Chinese Calendar Converter

省  別Provinces 追加地區Add

糧  別Grains 追加糧別Add

點狀圖Dotted Chart 柱狀圖Column Chart 

資料庫使用說明

  資料查詢方式說明如下:

一、起訖年月

  以西元年輸入,查詢年數可縱貫整個清朝。選定起訖年後,使用者可以選定這區間內的年份來查詢所需的糧價資料。

  原糧價清單的價格資料是以中曆月表示的價格,糧價研究須進行統計分析,以轉為西元年為佳,才能避免中曆年出現一年有12或13個月(閏月)不一的情形。為了解決中曆轉西曆的問題,王業鍵院士曾於主持本院補助主題研究計畫「清代糧價的統計分析與歷史考察」執行期間,以薛仲三、歐陽頤編,《兩千年中西曆對照表》(臺北:學海出版社,1970年)一書為據,由本院計算中心協助開發了「中央研究院兩千年中西曆轉換」程式。本資料庫即在此基礎上,將原以中曆月表示的糧價,轉成以西曆月表示的糧價。這是按照某一中曆月可能佔有兩個(或三個)西曆月不等的日數比例,即某一中曆月糧價所意含的月價格,實是跨兩個(或三個)西曆月不等日數比例的價格為原則轉換而成。

二、省別府別

  可查詢一省或其中的一個府,也可以對照方式同時查詢兩地的同一種糧食。

三、全省平均

  「全省平均」是各省所轄府、州數據的簡單平均值,例如A省底下的甲府有一三五月的資料,乙府有二四六月的資料,計算A省平均值時會把甲府的一三五、乙府的二四六合併計算,得到A省一到六月的平均數值,資料缺失的部分不列入計算。

  這個平均數值並非原始數據,為系統計算出的參考值,直接引用可能會有誤差,各府、州的數據才是原始數據。

四、糧別

  可查詢單一地區單一糧價,也可以對照方式,查詢一地兩種糧食、或者兩地同一種糧食的價格;但無法同時查詢兩地區兩種糧價。

  使用者輸入起訖年月、省別府別、糧別後即可獲得糧價資料。查詢結果會以點狀圖或柱狀圖及表格分別顯示該糧食價格。表格內每月糧價有最高價及最低價兩種價格,例如:119/165,表示每倉石最低價銀一兩一錢九分,最高價銀一兩六錢五分。

Instruction

  Database offers three joint conditions to query: From and To, Provinces, Countries subdivision and Grains, detailed as the following:

From and To

  Enter a western year, you can get the years which go through the Qing dynasty as a whole.

  Pick a specific starting year, you have an option of the duration to find the required Grains Data.

  The original grain price data were shown in Chinese Calendar, given Grains survey needs to conduct a concise statistical analysis, it is better to use Western Calendar, avoiding the discrepancy in leap years of Chinese Calendar.In order to solve the issue on transition of Chinese Calendar and Western Calendar, Academician Wang Yeh-chien (王業鍵) helped Academia Sinica Department of Information Technology Services (ITS) to develop Academia Sinica Two Thousand Years Western-Chinese Calendar Converter, when he conducted a thematic research project 'A Statistical Analysis and Historical Survey of Qing Dynasty Grain Price', based on the book 'A Sino-Western Calendar for Two Thousand Years, 1-2000 A. D.' which written by Xue Zhong-San (薛仲三) and OuYang Yi (歐陽頤) published by Xuehai publisher in 1970. On such basis, the original Grain Prices in Chinese Calendar were transferred into Western Calendar, respectively. A year in Western Calendar always has 12 months, whereas a year in Chinese Calendar usually has 12 or 13 months. Western-Chinese Calendar Converter was formulated from that principle.

Provinces

  Select a province or a country subdivision of that province to query.

  To add more areas, you can compare between two places at the same time.

Grains

  Select single area to find one grain price.

  Use comparison function, you can find the price of two grain types at the same place, or of single grain type with two places. Yet, you can’t query two grain prices with two areas at the same time.

  User enter From and To, Provinces (Local Governments) and Grains into the fields, you can find the grain price.

  Search results will be displayed in Dotted Chart (Column Chart) and in Table.

  Table shows the highest price and the lowest price by month.
For instance, 119/165.
119 means one Tael one Mace nine Candareens per Picul at lowest price.
165 means one Tael six Maces five Candareens per Picul at highest price.
Dotted Chart shows the highest price and the lowest price in various colors.
Column Chart shows the spread between the prices.

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